The INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation (INSURE) procedure is a widely-used surfactant administration method to treat preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) but is not always successful.
We conducted a systematic review to identify early predictive factors for failure of this procedure.
A systematic literature search was performed until July 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.
Original studies comparing INSURE success with INSURE failure in preterm infants with RDS were included.
A predefined data extraction form was used to retrieve data from articles, and methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN checklists. Fifteen studies out of 690 identified records met inclusion criteria.
Methodological quality varied, only 8 studies performed multivariate analysis. We identified 20 different risk factors in total.
Evidence for birth weight (BW) as a predictor for INSURE failure was inconsistent, but there was a significant association between decreasing gestational age (GA) and failure risk.
RDS severity was assessed in multiple ways, using arterial blood gas values, imaging, and scoring systems. In conclusion, extremely low BW, low GA, and severe RDS appear to be risk factors for INSURE failure.
However, evidence is inconsistent due to important methodological heterogeneity. Therefore, clinical applicability of these results is limited and implies the need for future large cohort studies on this subject.