Pulmonary hypertension is an emergency in neonatal intensive care units with high morbidity and mortality.
Its timely assessment and management is crucial for intact survival. Over the last couple of decades, there have been significant advances in management and techniques, which have resulted in improved survival.
The use of neonatologist-performed echocardiography (NPE) is now increasingly utilized on neonatal intensive care units to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and to direct the treatment to the underlying cause.
Its use is now established not only in cases of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and in the newborn with refractory hypoxemia, but also in other conditions such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the premature infant with difficulty in oxygenation.
The use of NPE, however, requires the availability of trained personnel, equipment, and a close working relationship with pediatric cardiology.